What Is AmchoPlast?

AmchoPlast is a biological wound cover series launched by LifeCell. It is made from dehydrated and sterilized placental tissues that are donated. AmchoPlast is a proactive approach for the management of acute and chronic wounds. It combines the beneficial effects of the native extracellular matrix (ECM) along with some of the biological components retained in the dehydrated wound cover for advanced wound healing.

The Different Layers Of AmchoPlast

AmchoPlast is a dry, thick, multi-layer wound cover that is derived from the placental tissues - amnion and chorion. These tissues form the extracellular matrix membrane that separates the fetus from the endometrium. The semipermeable and bio-absorbable nature of AmchoPlast is owing to the structure of these tissues.

1. Amnion

The amnion or amniotic membrane, is the innermost layer of the membrane covering the embryo during its formation. It eventually fills with amniotic fluid and protects the developing embryo from mechanical injuries. The amnion is usually 0.02-0.5cm thick, and is further made up of 5 layers -

  • Epithelium: It's the innermost layer, which is directly in contact with the amniotic fluid. The functions of this layer include protection, secretion, absorption, excretion, filtration, diffusion, and sensory reception 1.
  • A Thick Basement Membrane:  A thin layer that comprises a network of reticular fibers, this membrane acts as a molecular filter in capillaries, prevents the passage of proteins, and provides support for maintaining normal tissue architecture during regeneration and growth2.
  • The Compact Layer: A dense layer, devoid of cells, the compact layer is also composed of a network of reticular fibers like the basement membrane. This is the strongest of all the amniotic layers and is observed to resist penetration by leukocytes to some extent when there is an inflammation in the amnion 3.
  • The Fibroblast Layer: This is the thickest amnion layer, it comprises a loose fibroblast network and is found embedded in the reticular network. It occasionally exhibits phagocytic activity (protective behavior from infectious and non-infectious agents)3.
  • The Spongy Layer: Composed of wavy reticulin bundles and mucin, this layer is found between the amnion and chorion. Being edematous in nature, this layer is responsible for the increase in thickness that often occurs in the amnion3

2. Chorion

The chorion also forms the outer layer protecting the embryo from external factors, and is located right under the amniotic layer. The 3 layers of chorion membrane that is used for the development of AmchoPlast include3:

  • The Reticular Layer: This layer accounts for a majority of thickness of the chorion membrane and consists of a reticular network of fibers or connective tissues.
  • Pseudo-basement Membrane: It forms a basement membrane for the trophoblast and is made up of a dense layer of argyrophil connective tissue that offers support.
  • Trophoblast: The deepest chorion layer comprises two to ten layers of the trophoblast cells.

The Retained Biological Components That Makes Up AmchoPlast

Various biological components of the extracellular matrix involved in the regulation of wound healing are retained in the final allograft. They mainly include the structural proteins, growth factors, and cytokines.

Structural Proteins In Extracellular Matrix:

Structural proteins are biological components that give cells and tissues their structure. Some of these are retained in AmchoPlast and include:

  • Collagen - A key component of the extracellular matrix, collagen plays a critical role in the inflammatory and proliferative phases of wound healing4.
  • Elastin - This structural protein has been found to reduce wound contraction, while enhancing skin regeneration and elasticity, owing to its effectiveness in wound healing5.
  • Fibronectin - It is an adhesive molecule known to play a significant role in wound healing via helping with the formation of extracellular matrix and re epithelialization 6.
  • Laminin - These structural proteins are key players when it comes to two critical processes in wound healing - re-epithelialization and angiogenesis7.

Growth Factors & Cytokines:

Biological components found in AmchoPlast also include certain growth factors and cytokines, which are also known as chemical messengers known to mediate cellular as well as nuclear functions. They include:

  • KGF - The keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) helps in higher cellular proliferation and faster cell migration, thereby facilitating wound healing along with bFGF8.
  • PDGF - The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has been observed to help enhance tissue repair processes, further accelerating the healing of wounds9.
  • VEGF - Also known as vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF is approved by the FDA to accelerate the closure of non-healing wounds10.
  • TGF-beta 1 & 3 - Topical application of transforming growth factors beta 1 and 3 (TGF-beta 1 & 3) improves rate of healing as well as wound strength11.
  • HGF - HGF or hepatocyte growth factor is observed to enhance cellular function and is another significant factor that assists in accelerating wound closure12.

A Concluding Note

It is due to all these biological components (and their functions) that are retained during the production of AmchoPlast, that this wound cover gets a plethora of therapeutic features. Every component that makes up the base layer of AmchoPlast contributes towards its exceptional wound healing nature and shows great potential when it comes to healing of wounds.